Bible Book of Daniel, Part 8 - Chapters 10 & 11
We now come to Daniel’s fourth and final vision, at the age of ninety – the most detailed one.
The key aspects come out in chapter eleven (and then the final chapter twelve here), with chapter ten being the setting on how he first received this vision and the angelic and spiritual input for this. Therefore, both chapters ten and eleven are covered in this section.
It’s 536 BC, and three years into the Medo-Persian rule after Babylon through King Cyrus; Jews had started to go back to Jerusalem to rebuild the city a few years earlier after Cyrus’s decree. However, many Jews still remained, and those who had gone were struggling.
“In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel,” – Daniel 10:1a
This will have affected Daniel, who was in a three-week fast at the Passover time of year. He had travelled around 35 miles outside Babylon near the river Tigris with some other Jews celebrating this.
“In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.” – Daniel 10:2-3
He then sees a heavenly figure that is described like Christ, the Son of God, elsewhere in Scripture (Ezekiel 1:24-28 & Revelation 1:13-18):
“Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz: His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.” – Daniel 10:5-6
Although others with Daniel didn’t see this vision, it’s interesting how they still fled in fear – probably sensing that this was a serious spiritual moment:
“And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves.” – Daniel 10:7
Daniel remains, but he clearly has no energy and is tired, ending up with him sleeping face-down. Three weeks of fasting and such an experience with the Son of God making others flee, obviously takes it toll on Daniel:
“Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength. Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground.” – Daniel 10:8-9
There is then presumably another angelic being that appears and asks Daniel to stand up, as he was words to say to him:
“And he said unto me, O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee am I now sent. And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling.” – Daniel 10:11
This angel makes the point that there was been a three-week delay in his coming to provide these words, which are about the future later days. The reason for the delay is that there was a spiritual war between this angel and what is described as the Prince of Persia (i.e. Satan himself), that was so bad that Christ Himself (Michael) had to come and help out:
“Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.” – Daniel 10:12-13
This point is often picked up my mainstream Christian teachers, that our prayers are answered straight away when said, however, there can be a delay in receiving the answer because of all kinds of spiritual delays and warfare.
True, although bear in mind that in this context Daniel was about to receive the most detailed prophecy about the end times ever, therefore, would certainly attract the devil’s full-on attack.
Daniel is back on his face again and now dumb, with another potentially-different angel coming to help by touching his lips. This enables Daniel to speak, however, he confirms that he has no more strength or breath in him.
“And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips: then I opened my mouth, and space, and said unto him that stood before me, O my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon me, and I have retained no strength. For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.” – Daniel 10:15-17
Another angelic-being like a man appears to Daniel and tells him to be strong, which enables strength to come back to Daniel and to be able to ask for more words and understanding:
“Then there came again and touched me one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me, And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.” – Daniel 10:18-19
To finish off this particular chapter, now that Daniel’s strength is restored, this angelic being needs to go back and fight the Prince of Persia (Satan), but there is another angelic being on the way back, the Prince of Grecia.
“Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.” – Daniel 10:20-21
Therefore, in short, there have been multiple angelic beings (including the Son of God) involved in not only revealing a final vision to Daniel, but comforting him and enabling his strength to come back after a serious spiritual war with Satan trying to stop this.
We then come to chapter eleven and a description of this vision, however, several years later with the new king Darius in charge.
This provides huge amounts of detail over these 45 verses which outlines future happenings in a different format to previous ones like images of beasts and metals in statues.
The overall theme is between two kings – one in the ‘north’, and one in the ‘south’.
There are various happenings , victories, and defeats with each one turning against the other over time, and which have two important themes.
Firstly, from a historical perspective you can trace this matching historical events perfectly.
The south king begins out as the Egyptian one, and the north one as Medo-Persia itself with various others succeeding these two roles over time.
Around 200 specific details have already come true up to around verse 40, with 135 major events predicted over the first 35 verses which is around 18% of such events in the bible as a whole.
Most scholars therefore don’t dispute the accuracy of these, and can only conclude that this must have been somehow made up afterwards, or was divinely inspired in order to arrive at this sort of accuracy.
However, secondly, there is a spiritual significance to this. In simple terms, the king of the north is seen as bad and spiritual, and the king of the south as good and secular.
This matches the theme of the antichrist kingdoms and kings against God’s rule in previous prophecies.
At face value the north one takes the Babylon-MedoPersia-Greece-Rome pattern, and a more religious/political system. The South from Egypt is more secular, which the north ends up conquering in it’s pursuit of worship.
However, there are instances where these two sides get together, for example meeting at a table, and in the end become one force against God’s people as per end-times predictions in Revelation.
Therefore, the back-and-forth happenings between these two kings, and often focus on Israel in between, can be missing the true end goal – to turn a world against God and His believers.
In terms of what each of these 45 verses mean, here is a quick summary of each one and what the interpretation most likely is in real-time history and spiritual battles.
These are as concise a possible, with various other details of each available online, and differences between scholars of some parts.
If you’re not into this kind of detailed history, then this can seem monotonous, however, it’s still important to even quickly go through each of the 45 points even if only for a brief look at, in order to realise just how much historical details are being prophesied by God.
To visualise this on the display, these are 45 separate pieces of wood representing each verse in chapter eleven that we’ll place on the board.
It may come across as like a game of bingo, and is the only visual part of chapter ten and eleven here; this is deliberately done to simply see an overview of the detail here rather than becmoning more complicated and looking further into what each of these two kings are doing over time:
1. We being with the start of the Medo-Persian empire from the Babylonians in their first year of Darius’ reign:
“Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.” – Daniel 11:1
2. There were then four kings after Darius; Cambyses (530-522 BC), False Smerdis (522 BC), Darius the Great (522-486 BC), and Xerxes the Great (486-465 BC). The fourth one is more rich and powerful, with specific reference to Greece being the next kingdom after Medo-Persia:
“And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.” – Daniel 11:2
3. A powerful king is then described with great influence and determination, which fits in perfectly with Alexander the Great in this new Grecian kingdom:
“And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.” – Daniel 11:3
4. There are then the four specific divisions of this Greece kingdom relating to the four General taking over these after Alexander the Great’s death as detailed earlier:
“And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.” – Daniel 11:4
5. These four regions narrow down to two, after the other two are defeated by them, leaving Seleucus in the North and Ptolemy in the South. This verse refers to this later South king and one of his princes (his son Ptolemy Philadelphus) having great power, and in particular over the other remaining king in the North, Seleucus. We now begin an ongoing dialogue between this Northern king based in Babylon, and Southern king in Egypt:
“And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.” – Daniel 11:5
6. We then have the daughter Berenice of King Ptolemy II (in the South) marrying King Antiochus (in the North) because of his desire for dominating the north, and persuading Antiochus to disown his existing wife Laodice. However, this unravels a series of events afterwards when Berenice’s father the Southern king died, Antiochus annulled the marriage and returned to his first wife; but Laodice then killed him and Berenice, and placed her son Seleucus Callinicus on the Northern throne:
“And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.” – Daniel 11:6
7. When Ptolemy Euergetes took his father’s throne in the South, he issued an army against the North for killing his sister Berenice, which brings the death of Laodice. Therefore, Egypt (the South) is victorious over Syria (the North):
“But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:” – Daniel 11:7
8. This identifies how Ptolemy returns from the North with idols that had been taken away from Egypt 300 years earlier:
“And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.” – Daniel 11:8
9. He returns safely back to Egypt in the South, even though the northern Syrians try to return and fight in 242 BC, but end up being defeated in a storm:
“So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.” – Daniel 11:9
10. The Northern king Antiochus the Great then retaliates with his sons taking troops against Ptolemy IV in the South, and eventual defeat at the Egyptian border in 217 BC.
“But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.” – Daniel 11:10
11. The South king fights back with victory at the battle of Raphia involving a great army:
“And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.” – Daniel 11:11
12. Ptolemy the Southern king then returns home to Egypt and became proud and complacent, and then desecration of the temple in Jerusalem with unlawful sacrifices and worship of Pagan gods (reference here to the tens of thousands of Jews being killed):
“And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.” – Daniel 11:12
13. The northern king Antiochus III will attack the southern one with greater force, and defeat the southern Ptolemy V Epiphanes at the Battle of Panium in approximately 200 BC, driving Egypt out of the Palestine region:
“For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.” – Daniel 11:13
14. The southern king’s five-year old son takes the throne next, with the northern king seeing an opportunity to fight back and joining forces with Philip V of Macedonia. However, they didn’t succeed because of Rome helping Ptolemy in the southern Egypt as they agreed to taxation and providing men for fighting:
“And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.” – Daniel 11:14
15. Antiochus III in the north invades Coele-Syria in 201-198 BC and defeats the southern Egypt’s armies in Sidon, with General Scopas and his army surrendering.
“So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.” – Daniel 11:15
16. We now have Rome coming against the northern Antiochus III, and eventually conquering the Seucis empire and then Syria in 65 BC after first overcoming Greece at the Battle of Pyda in 168 BC as seen in earlier prophecies, to take over the role of the northern king. Pompey the Great, a Roman General, then conquors and occupies Judea in 63 BC, the glorious land, as a military base:
“But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.” – Daniel 11:16
17. Julius Caesar as northern Rome then sets armies against the south , which include Jewish forces loyal to him. He then falls in love with a lady called Cleopatra in Egypt, who becomes his mistress, who was the daughter of Antichus in the north but given to the Egyptian king in an effort to control Egypt.
“He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.” – Daniel 11:17
18. After conquering Egypt in the south, Julius Caesar then succeeds with Asia Minor and the North Africa coastline on his journey back.
“After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.” – Daniel 11:18
19. He returns home to northern Rome, but is then assassinated in 44 BC while trying to plunder the temple.
“Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.” – Daniel 11:19
20. This leads to the Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar having the longest period of peaceful reign between 27 BC and 14 AD, covering the period of Christ’s birth, and specifically bringing in a tax levy:
“Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.” – Daniel 11:20
21. After Augustus Caesar’s death, Tiberius Caesar took over peaceably but reluctantly; a horrible person, and through the false flattery of the Roman senate.
“And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” – Daniel 11:21
22. Tiberius was a poor leader, with various revolts and execution of those against him. There is even reference to Christ Himself being crucified at this period (Pilate was the uncle of Tiberius’ wife).
“And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.” – Daniel 11:22
23. There was a league made between Rome and Maccabees in 161 BC, and the increasing strength and dominance of the Roman empire.
“And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.” – Daniel 11:23
24. As referred to earlier, a time in this biblical context means a year and therefore 360 days, which in turn implies 360 years in real terms. From 31 BC when Roman rule was established under Augustus at the battle of Actium, we arrive at 330 AD when the Roman Emperor Constantine transferred the capital of Rome to Constantinople. This involved conquering places like Egypt and sharing conquests with other places.
“He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.” – Daniel 11:24
25. This outlines the lead up to the battle of Actium in 31 BC when Octavian from the Roman north fights against Antony and Cleopatra in the southern Egypt and win.
“And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.” – Daniel 11:25
26. Antony and Cleopatra then flee from the battle, leaving the northern victory with thousands of deaths and Emperor Augustus establishing power with Octavian’s win:
“Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.” – Daniel 11:26
27. Antony and Octavian then make an alliance, although with each one wanting dominance, and Antony eventually committing suicide:
“And both of these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.” – Daniel 11:27
28. Octavian then returns back to Rome with great spoil from Egypt, to then see Rome destroy Jerusalem and it’s temple in 70 AD as Titus returns with triumph:
“Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.” – Daniel 11:28
29. This is the time of 330 AD when Constantine in Rome moves the capital to the less-prestigious Constantinople with a move easterly towards the south, but not as originally with Octavian conquering Egypt or Titus then invading Jerusalem.
“At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.” – Daniel 11:29
30. The northern Roman empire is attached by the Vandel and Germanic barbaric tribes, with resistance by Rome being futile. There is then the move from Pagan to Papal Rome and the increasing supremacy of Emperors and Bishops
“For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.” – Daniel 11:30
31. Military help for the Papacy then comes in the form of Clovis the King of France, and final supremacy of the Papacy from Roman paganism in 538 AD and the beginning of the 1,260 years of control.
“And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” – Daniel 11:31
32. This new Papal religion will entice and attract interest and believers, however, there will remain core Christian believers throughout this period that do not confirm to this new religious entity, for example the Waldensians, Wycliffe in England, and Martin Luthur of course in Germany with the Reformation.
“And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.” – Daniel 11:32
33. The dark Middle Ages in predicted of 1,260 years between 538 and 1798 AD where the Papacy rules and persecutes those who follow God’s biblical ways, however, with reference to how the Word and protestant faith does spread through God raising up people and means such as the printing of God’s Word:
“And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.” – Daniel 11:33
34. During this difficult period some believers will be sheltered from harm and part of Reformations like Luthur’s, and the American and French Reformations, whilst others will follow the Papacy’s authority over scripture:
“Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.” – Daniel 11:34
35. Persecutions and deaths will continue right up until the time of the end from 1798, which according to earlier prophecies in Daniel is when things will change and knowledge will increase.
“And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.” – Daniel 11:35
36. There is clear reference to the Papacy’s claim to be head of the church and equality with God Himself, including the ability to forgive sins:
“And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.” – Daniel 11:36
37. We then see further detail of the Papacy’s beliefs, namely claiming equality with God, and celibacy:
“Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.” – Daniel 11:37
38. Reference is then made to the Papacy’s use of military might to secure dominion in Europe, and with new god-images and practices like the Virgin Mary, indulgences, and elaborate art and materials:
“But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” – Daniel 11:38
39. The Papacy’s influence over Christendom is explained, for example the Virgin Mary, Saints, and Sun Worship – and leading to the formation of territories, Papal States, and dioceses for economic gain:
“Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.” – Daniel 11:39
40. The time of the end then arrives which according to Daniel’s earlier prophecies is after 1798, and the re-emergence of a southern kingdom against the northern Rome one. As we move more into modern times, then remaining verses become more open to interpretation, with this one arguably being France in their conquer of the Papacy in 1798 or even Russia in the eighties with the Pope partnering with Ronald Regan and the military and economic power of the USA to deter Russia’s domination of eastern Europe.
“And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.” – Daniel 11:40
41. We then have a religious reference to the northern king’s influence, which could mean Christian believers generally or an area such as the Unites States with a Christian heritage. Many will be over powered by this, although with reference to two particular ones not:
“He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.” – Daniel 11:41
42. This northern king will then dominate many countries and areas, including the southern kingdom at last, suggesting world-wide influence:
“He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.” – Daniel 11:42
43. This leads to the northern king’s financial and economic control, with two particular areas following closely:
“But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” – Daniel 11:43
44. However, as we near the end of these verses and ultimately earthly time, something will trouble this dominating northern power, which causes him to cause mass destruction and killings. Two regions of the east and north are mentioned, and probably referring to a spiritual influence that is threatening the rule of this religious power:
“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.” – Daniel 11:44
45. In the final scene before this final world-controlling northern power comes to an end, there is reference to the religious and church influence of this power being used and affecting God’s true believers in the comparable glorious mountain:
“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.” – Daniel 11:45